3D Printing



Phone: +49 351 2599 9410

Fax: +49 351 2599 9429

Mail: research[at]innotere.de

By using INNOTERE's bone cement paste technology, one of our main R&D topics is the design and 3D printing of scaffolds with a large variety of shapes. The 3D printing technology and unique paste properties allow to precisely customize the dimensions and porosity of the final products. After the printing process, the samples are solidified by applying a special setting procedure at low temperatures, which prevents shrinkage artifacts. Due to the special setting procedure the final material mainly consists of nanocrystalline, calcium deficient hydroxyapatite, which is highly biocompatible as well as biodegradable and chemically stable in neutral and alkaline medium.

Based on our innovative 3D printing technology we are able to produce samples and scaffolds with a large variety of adjustable features:


  • material based on synthetic calcium phosphate phases

  • degradable and resorbable by cellular activity

  • two- or three-dimensional design

  • individual shapes (cubic, cylindrical, freeforms, etc.)

  • equidistant or anisotropic strand arrangement

  • variable strand diameter from 0.25mm to 1mm

  • variable interconnecting porosity (isotropic or anisotropic)

  • optional sterile packaging and gamma irradiation



Typical applications of our 3D printed samples are:

  • reference samples (chemically and structurally defined, ideal for quantification and microscopy)

  • scaffolds for cell culture and perfusion systems (2D, 3D), perfectly fitting in standard tissue culture well plates

  • substrates for coatings, chemical modification, surface modification

  • filtration devices

  • simple 2D constructs for biochemical pre-studies to complex scaffolds for in vivo studies

  • adaptable workflows from prototype to pilot-plant scale

Featured Publications

  • Strontium(II) and Mechanical Loading Additively Augment Bone Formation in Calcium Phosphate Scaffolds. Reitmaier S, Kovtun A, Schuelke J,  Kanter B, Lemm M, Hoess A, Heinemann S, Nies B, Ignatius A Journal of Orthopaedic Research 2017

  • 3D plotting of growth factor loaded calcium phosphate cement scaffolds. Akkineni AR, Luo Y, Schumacher M, Nies B, Lode A, Gelinsky M Acta Biomaterialia 2015

  • Medium-Term Funkction of a 3D Printed TCP/HA Structure as a New Osteoinductive Scaffold for Vertical Bone Augmentation: A Simulation by BMP-2 Activation. Moussa M, Carrel JP, Scherrer S, Cattani-Lorente M, Wiskott A, Durual S Materials 2015

  • A 3D printed TCP/HA structure as a new osteoconductive scaffold for vertical bone augmentation. Carrel JP, Wiskott A, Moussa M, Rieder P, Scherrer S, Durual S Clinical Oral Implants Research 2014

  • Fabrication of porous scaffolds by three-dimensional plotting of a pasty calcium phosphate bone cement under mild conditions. Lode A, Meissner K, Luo Y, Sonntag F, Glorius S, Nies B, Vater C, Despang F, Hanke T, Gelinsky M Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine 2014

  • Well-ordered biphasic calcium phosphate–alginate scaffolds fabricated by multi-channel 3D plotting under mild conditions. Lou Y, Lode A, Sonntag F, Nies B, Gelinsky M Journal of Materials Chemistry B 2013

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