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3D Printing



Phone: +49 351 2599 9410

Fax: +49 351 2599 9429

Mail: research[at]

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By using INNOTERE's bone cement paste technology, one of our main R&D topics is the design and 3D printing of scaffolds with a large variety of shapes. The 3D printing technology and unique paste properties allow to precisely customize the dimensions and porosity of the final products. Due to low temperature setting the final material mainly consists of nanocrystalline, calcium deficient hydroxyapatite comparable to the mineral phase of bone.

Based on our innovative 3D printing technology we are able to produce samples and scaffolds with a large variety of adjustable features:


  • material based on synthetic calcium phosphate phases

  • degradable and resorbable by cellular activity

  • two- or three-dimensional design

  • individual shapes (cubic, cylindrical, freeforms, etc.)

  • equidistant or anisotropic strand arrangement

  • variable strand diameter from 0.25mm to 1mm

  • variable interconnecting porosity (isotropic or anisotropic)

  • optional sterile packaging and gamma irradiation

Typical applications of our 3D printed scaffolds are:

  • reference samples (chemically and structurally defined, ideal for quantification and microscopy)

  • scaffolds for cell culture and perfusion systems (2D, 3D), perfectly fitting in standard tissue culture well plates

  • substrates for coatings, chemical modification, surface modification

  • filtration devices

  • simple 2D constructs for biochemical pre-studies to complex scaffolds for in vivo studies

  • adaptable workflows from prototype to pilot-plant scale

Featured Publications

  • Investigation of manufacturing deviations of CPC scaffolds for improving the design process. Seidler A, Pendzik M, Hilbig A, Sembdner P, Holtzhausen S, Paetzold-Byhain K. Current Directions in Biomedical Engineering 2023

  • Treatment of critical bone defects using calcium phosphate cement and mesoporous bioactive glass providing spatiotemporal drug delivery. Richter RF, Vater C, Korn M, Ahlfeld T, Rauner M, Pradel W, Stadlinger B, Gelinsky M, Lode A, Korn P. Bioactive Materials 2023

  • Micro-porous PLGA/β-TCP/TPU scaffolds prepared by solvent-based 3D printing for bone tissue engineering purposes. Hatt LP, Wirth S, Ristaniemi A, Ciric DJ, Thompson K, Eglin D, Stoddart MJ, Armiento AR. Regenerative Biomaterials 2023

  • About the Mechanical Strength of Calcium Phosphate Cement Scaffolds. Bertrand E, Zankovic S, Vinke J, Schmal H, Seidenstuecker M. Designs 2023

  • Synergy of inorganic and organic inks in bioprinted tissue substitutes: Construct stability and cell response during long-term cultivation in vitro. Liu S, Bernhardt A, Wirsig K, Lode A, Hu Q, Gelinsky M, Kilian D. Composites Part B: Engineering 2023

  • Alveolar ridge augmentation with 3D-printed synthetic bone blocks: A clinical case series. Perez A, Lazzarotto B, Marger L, Durual S. Clinical Case Reports 2023

  • Multifunctional Three-Dimensional Printed Copper Loaded Calcium Phosphate Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration. Pillai A, Chakka J, Heshmathi N, Zhang Y, Alkadi F, Maniruzzaman M. Pharmaceuticals 2023

  • Application of the neuropeptide NPVF to enhance angiogenesis and osteogenesis in bone regeneration. Yu H, Wang Y, Gao J, Gao Y, Zhong C, Chen Y. Communications Biology 2023

  • Egg white improves the biological properties of an alginate-methylcellulose bioink for 3D bioprinting of volumetric bone constructs. Liu S, Kilian D, Ahlfeld T, Hu Q, Gelinsky M. Biofabrication 2023

  • Protocol for Cell Colonization and Comprehensive Monitoring of Osteogenic Differentiation in 3D Scaffolds Using Biochemical Assays and Multiphoton Imaging. Sommer KP, Krolinski A, Mirkhalaf M, Zreiqat H, Friedrich O, Vielreicher M. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 2023

  • A dual osteoconductive-osteoprotective implantable device for vertical alveolar ridge augmentation. Dairaghi J, Benito Alston C, Cadle R, Rogozea D, Solorio L, Barco CT, Moldovan NI. Frontiers in Dental Medicine 2023

  • 3D extrusion printing of density gradients by variation of sinusoidal printing paths for tissue engineering and beyond. Kilian D, Holtzhausen S, Groh W, Sembdner P, Czichy C, Lode A, Stelzer R, Gelinsky M. Acta Biomaterialia 2022

  • Alternative Geometries for 3D Bioprinting of Calcium Phosphate Cement as Bone Substitute. Blankenburg J, Vinke J, Riedel B, Zankovic S, Schmal H, Seidenstuecker M. Biomedicines 2022

  • 3D Printing of Human Ossicle Models for the Biofabrication of Personalized Middle Ear Prostheses. Dairaghi J, Rogozea D, Cadle R, Bustamante J, Moldovan L, Petrache HI, Moldovan NI. Applied Sciences 2022

  • Chondrogenic differentiation of human bone marrow MSCs in osteochondral implants under kinematic mechanical load is dependent on the underlying osteo component. Monaco G, Qawasmi F, El Haj AJ,
    Forsyth NR, Stoddart MJ. Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology 2022

  • 3D Plotting of Calcium Phosphate Cement and Melt Electrowriting of Polycaprolactone Microfibers in One Scaffold: A Hybrid Additive Manufacturing Process. Kilian D, von Witzleben M, Lanaro M, Wong CS, Vater C, Lode A, Allenby MC, Woodruff MA, Gelinsky M. Journal of Functional Biomaterials 2022

  • Treatment of Critical Size Femoral Bone Defects with Biomimetic Hybrid Scaffolds of 3D Plotted Calcium Phosphate Cement and Mineralized Collagen Matrix. Culla AC, Vater C, Tian X, Bolte J, Ahlfeld T, Bretschneider H, Pape A, Goodman SB, Gelinsky M, Zwingenberger S. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 2022

  • Magnetic resonance imaging as a tool for quality control in extrusion-based bioprinting. Schmieg B, Gretzinger S, Schuhmann S, Guthausen G, Hubbuch J. Biotechnology Journal 2022

  • Three-dimensional printing of clinical scale and personalized calcium phosphate scaffolds for alveolar bone reconstruction. Anderson M, Dubey N, Bogie K, Cao C, Li J, Lerchbacker J, Mendonça G, Kauffmann F, Bottino MC, Kaigler D. Dental Materials 2022

  • Composites consisting of calcium phosphate cements and mesoporous bioactive glasses as a 3D plottable drug delivery system. Richter RF, Ahlfeld T, Gelinsky M, Lode A. Acta Biomaterialia 2022

  • GDF-5 variant loading on composite scaffolds promotes spinal fusion through coupling of osteogenesis and angiogenesis: a preclinical study in rhesus monkeys. Li L, Ling Z, Vater C, Chen X, Huang S, Qi Q, Zhou Z, Li X, Zou Z, Gelinsky M, Lou J, Zou X, Stiehler M. Smart Materials in Medicine 2021

  • 3D printing of patient-specific implants for osteochondral defects: workflow for an MRI-guided zonal design. Kilian D, Sembdner P, Bretschneider H, Ahlfeld T, Mika L, Lützner J, Holtzhausen S, Lode A, Stelzer R, Gelinsky M. Bio-Design and Manufacturing 2021

  • Effectiveness of xenogeneic and synthetic bone-block substitute materials with/without recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2: A preclinical study using a rabbit calvarium model. Lim HC, Paeng KW, Jung UW, Benic GI. Journal of Clinical Periodontology 2021

  • Comparison of amniotic membrane versus the induced membrane for bone regeneration in long bone segmental defects using calcium phosphate cement loaded with BMP-2. Fenelon M, Etchebarne M, Siadous R, Grémare A, Durand M, Sentilhes L, Catros S, Gindraux F, L'Heureux N, Fricain JC. Materials Science and Engineering C 2021

  • Coaxial Micro-Extrusion of a Calcium Phosphate Ink with Aqueous Solvents Improves Printing Stability, Structure Fidelity and Mechanical Properties. Bagnol R, Sprecher C, Peroglio M, Chevalier J, Mahou R, Büchler P, Richards G, Eglin D. Acta Biomaterialia 2021

  • A dual-ink 3D printing strategy to engineer pre-vascularized bone scaffolds in-vitro. Twohig C, Helsinga M, Mansoorifar A, Athirasala A, Tahayeri A, França CM, Pajares SA, Abdelmoniem R, Scherrer S, Durual S, Ferracane J, Bertassoni LE. Materials Science and Engineering C 2021

  • Toward Biofabrication of Resorbable Implants Consisting of a Calcium Phosphate Cement and Fibrin - A Characterization In Vitro and In Vivo. Ahlfeld T, Lode A, Richter RF, Pradel W, Franke A, Rauner M, Stadlinger B, Lauer G, Gelinsky M, Korn P. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 2021

  • 3D Printed Calcium Phosphate Cement (CPC) Scaffolds for Anti-Cancer Drug Delivery. Wu Y, Woodbine L, Carr AM, Pillai AR, Nokhodchi A, Maniruzzaman M. Pharmaceutics 2020

  • 3D Bioprinting of Osteochondral Tissue Substitutes – In Vitro Chondrogenesis in Multi-Layered Mineralized Constructs. Kilian D, Ahlfeld T, Akkineni AR, Bernhardt A, Gelinsky M, Lode A. Scientific Reports 2020

  • 3D Printing of Bone Grafts for Cleft Alveolar Osteoplasty – In vivo Evaluation in a Preclinical Model. Korn P, Ahlfeld T, Lahmeyer F, Kilian D, Sembdner P, Stelzer R, Pradel W, Franke A, Rauner M, Range U, Stadlinger B, Lode A, Lauer G, Gelinsky M. Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology 2020

  • A Novel Plasma-Based Bioink Stimulates Cell Proliferation and Differentiation in Bioprinted, Mineralized Constructs. Ahlfeld T, Cubo-Mateo N, Cometta S, Guduric V, Vater C, Bernhardt A, Akkineni AR, Lode A, Gelinsky M. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2020

  • Calcium Phosphate Bone Graft Substitutes with High Mechanical Load Capacity and High Degree of Interconnecting Porosity. Hettich G, Schierjott RA, Epple M, Gbureck U, Heinemann S, Mozaffari-Jovein H, Grupp TM. Materials 2019

  • Development and Characterization of Composites Consisting of Calcium Phosphate Cements and Mesoporous Bioactive Glass for Extrusion-Based Fabrication. Richter RF, Ahlfeld T, Gelinsky M, Lode A. Materials 2019

  • 3D Plotted Biphasic Bone Scaffolds for Growth Factor Delivery: Biological Characterization In Vitro and In Vivo. Ahlfeld T, Schuster FP, Förster Y, Quade M, Akkineni AR, Rentsch C, Rammelt S, Gelinsky M, Lode A. Advanced Healthcare Materials 2019

  • Evaluation of Bone Sialoprotein Coating of Three-Dimensional Printed Calcium Phosphate Scaffolds in a Calvarial Defect Model in Mice. Baranowski A, Klein A, Ritz U, Götz H, Mattyasovszky SG, Rommens PM, Hofmann A. Materials 2018

  • A Methylcellulose Hydrogel as Support for 3D Plotting of Complex Shaped Calcium Phosphate Scaffolds. Ahlfeld T, Köhler T, Czichy C, Lode A, Gelinsky M. Gels 2018

  • Bioprinting of Mineralized Constructs Utilizing Multichannel Plotting of a Self-Setting Calcium Phosphate Cement and a Cell-Laden Bioink. Ahlfeld T, Doberenz F, Kilian D, Vater C, Korn P, Lauer G, Lode A, Gelinsky M. Biofabrication 2018

  • Endosteal and Perivascular Subniches in a 3D Bone Marrow Model for Multiple Myeloma. Braham MVJ, Ahlfeld T, Akkineni AR, Minnema MC, Dhert WJA, Öner FC, Robin C, Lode A, Gelinsky M, Alblas J. Tissue Engineering Part C: Methods 2018

  • Comparison of three block bone substitutes for bone regeneration: long-term observation in the beagle dog. Sawada K, Nakahara K, Haga-Tsujimura M, Iizuka T, Fujioka-Kobayashi M, Igarashi K, Saulacic N. Odontology 2018

  • Effect of Bone Sialoprotein Coated Three-Dimensional Printed Calcium Phosphate Scaffolds on Primary Human Osteoblasts. Klein A, Baranowski A, Ritz U, Götz H, Heinemann S, Mattyasovszky S, Rommens PM, Hofmann A. Journal Biomedical Materials Research Part B 2018

  • Strontium(II) and Mechanical Loading Additively Augment Bone Formation in Calcium Phosphate Scaffolds. Reitmaier S, Kovtun A, Schuelke J,  Kanter B, Lemm M, Hoess A, Heinemann S, Nies B, Ignatius A. Journal of Orthopaedic Research 2017

  • In Situ Functionalization of Scaffolds During Extrusion-Based 3D Plotting Using a Piezoelectric Nanoliter Pipette. Giron S, Lode A, Gelinsky M. Journal of 3D Printing in Medicine 2016

  • Design and Fabrication of Complex Scaffolds for Bone Defect Healing: Combined 3D Plotting of a Calcium Phosphate Cement and a Growth Factor-Loaded Hydrogel. Ahlfeld T, Akkineni AR, Förster Y, Köhler T, Knaack S, Gelinsky M, Lode A. Annals of Biomedical Engineering 2016

  • Large Bone Vertical Augmentation Using a Three-Dimensional Printed TCP/HA Bone Graft: A Pilot Study in Dog Mandible. Carrel JP, Wiskott A, Scherrer S, Durual S. Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research 2016

  • 3D Plotting of Growth Factor Loaded Calcium Phosphate Cement Scaffolds. Akkineni AR, Luo Y, Schumacher M, Nies B, Lode A, Gelinsky M. Acta Biomaterialia 2015

  • Medium-Term Function of a 3D Printed TCP/HA Structure as a New Osteoinductive Scaffold for Vertical Bone Augmentation: A Simulation by BMP-2 Activation. Moussa M, Carrel JP, Scherrer S, Cattani-Lorente M, Wiskott A, Durual S. Materials 2015

  • A 3D Printed TCP/HA Structure as a New Osteoconductive Scaffold for Vertical Bone Augmentation. Carrel JP, Wiskott A, Moussa M, Rieder P, Scherrer S, Durual S. Clinical Oral Implants Research 2014

  • Fabrication of Porous Scaffolds by Three-Dimensional Plotting of a Pasty Calcium Phosphate Bone Cement Under Mild Conditions. Lode A, Meissner K, Luo Y, Sonntag F, Glorius S, Nies B, Vater C, Despang F, Hanke T, Gelinsky M. Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine 2014

  • Well-Ordered Biphasic Calcium Phosphate–Alginate Scaffolds Fabricated by Multi-Channel 3D Plotting Under Mild Conditions. Lou Y, Lode A, Sonntag F, Nies B, Gelinsky M. Journal of Materials Chemistry B 2013

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